Luther Visualized 8 – The Diet at Worms

Luther’s Stand Before the Diet at Worms

Anton von Werner, Luther at the Diet at Worms, oil on canvas, 1877

This painting depicts Luther’s famous stand before the Holy Roman Emperor on April 18, 1521. The emperor, Charles V, sits beneath the curtained canopy, with bishops and cardinals surrounding him. The presiding official, Johann von der Eck, is holding a parchment in his right hand. Luther tells the assembly, “Unless I am convinced by the testimony of the Scriptures…I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not retract anything…”

Sources
Weimarer Ausgabe 7:814ff, esp. p. 838

Luther’s Works 32:101ff

Some Diet at Worms Trivia

  1. Two contemporaries of Luther, Daniel Greser and Helius Eobanus Hessus, record that when Luther preached at the Augustinian church in Erfurt on his way to Worms, “the church was so full of people that the balcony groaned and everyone thought it was going to collapse, and so a few people also knocked the windows out and would have jumped out onto the churchyard if Luther had not reassured them and told them to stay put. He said the devil was up to his usual mischief and they should just stay put; nothing bad was going to happen.” He may have even addressed the devil himself: “I know your tricks, you bitter enemy!” The people did stay put, there was no accident, and Luther went on to deliver a beautiful gospel sermon (available in English in Luther’s Works 51:60ff).
  2. diet back then had nothing to do with food. In basic terms, a diet was a regular, representative imperial business meeting for the Holy Roman Empire. These meetings or assemblies were attended by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Estates of the empire. The Imperial Estates were divided into three chambers—the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, and the Council of Free and Imperial Cities. These representatives would hold discussions and make decisions pertaining to the problems, reform, and maintenance of the empire.
  3. On the first day of Luther’s trial at Worms, April 17, he was much more subdued and seemed to be nervous. It seems that he was still hoping to get a fair hearing. He quickly realized, however, that as an excommunicated man he was only going to be asked to acknowledge his writings and to retract them. It was a deciding moment and Luther requested time for thought; he was granted one day. He was much more prepared, confident, and bold on the second day.
  4. Before Luther gave his famous summary speech concluding with “I cannot do otherwise. Here I stand,” etc. on the second day of his trial (April 18), he gave a much longer speech in which he classified his books into three categories, in order to show that they could not all be treated the same, even by his opponents. He actually gave this speech in German first, and then repeated it in Latin. He may have given his famous summary speech in both languages too. (This might account for the debate over whether or not he actually said the famous words, “Here I stand.”) By the time he was finished with all that talking at the end of the day’s proceedings, Luther was sweating heavily in the hot and overcrowded hall.
  5. Among those in attendance at the Diet at Worms was the somewhat famous Renaissance composer Ludwig Senfl, who eventually began a correspondence with Luther in 1530 and even sent him one of his motets. Scholars are divided, however, on whether Senfl became a Protestant.
  6. Even many Lutherans think that Luther exited the Diet at Worms in the metaphorical blaze of glory after his famous “Here I stand” speech. While the proceedings for that day (April 18) did conclude shortly after Luther’s remarks, there were more private negotiations between Luther and a specially formed commission of ten men on the days following. Since Luther refused to back down from his biblical position and no agreement could be reached, Johann von der Eck visited him for the last time on April 25, warned him that the emperor was going to take action against him, and told him he should return home within 21 days.
  7. The resulting Edict of Worms, issued on May 25 and backdated to May 8, was the fiercest edict ever issued by a German emperor. It said that Luther and his sympathizers could be arrested or killed, and that his followers should be driven from their homes and anyone who wished could appropriate their belongings.
  8. There have always been behind-closed-doors aspects of politics that will remain shrouded in mystery until Judgment Day: Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony, Luther’s governing prince, requested that he be exempted from enforcing the Edict of Worms, and Emperor Charles V inexplicably granted his request.

Luther Visualized 3 – The Vow

Luther Becomes a Monk

Lutherstein (© Red Brick Parsonage, 2018)

On Wednesday, July 2, 1505, Luther was returning to Erfurt after visiting his parents in Mansfeld. About six kilometers north of Erfurt, along the Stollberg hills near Stotternheim, a thunderstorm broke out and a lightning bolt struck nearby. The pictured memorial stone marks the approximate spot. The front, western face reads: “Hallowed Ground | Turning Point of the Reformation | In a flash from heaven, the young Luther was here shown the way.” The back, eastern face has the words Luther cried out after being knocked to the ground: “Help, St. Anne! I will become a monk!” The northern side reads: “Out of Thuringia, light.” And the southern side gives the date of the event.

Sources
Christian Gotthold Neudecker, ed., Die handschriftliche Geschichte Ratzeberger’s über Luther und seine Zeit (Jena: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Mauke, 1850), pp. 45-46

Johannes Mathesius, Historien / Von des Ehrwirdigen in Gott Seligen thewren Manns Gottes / Doctoris Martini Luthers / anfang / lehr / leben und sterben (Nuremberg, 1566), fol. 4

Georg Oergel, Vom jungen Luther (Erfurt: Druck und Verlag von J. G. Cramers Buchdruckerei, 1899), pp. 27-28

Michael Wolgemut and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Erfordia, woodcut, 1493 (coloring subsequent)

Luther enrolled in the University of Erfurt in the spring of 1501. (The city’s population was about 20,000 at the time.) There he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1502 (ranked 30 of 57) and his Master of Arts degree in February 1505 (ranked 2 of 17). He began studying law in May 1505, in keeping with his father’s wishes, but these studies were interrupted by his vow to become a monk on July 2. On July 17, his friends escorted him to the monastery of the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine in Erfurt. After his several-week trial period and his novitiate year, he took his vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity and became a full-fledged monk in 1506. This woodcut of Erfurt appeared in Hartmann Schedel’s so-called Nürnberger Chronik (more properly, Das Buch der Croniken und [Gedechtnus Wirdigern] Geschichten) (Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 1493). The city is viewed from the east with the Kremper or Krämpfer Gate in the foreground. Most prominently depicted are St. Mary’s Cathedral and St. Severus’ Church on the left (south), and the Benedictine monastery of St. Peter on Peter’s Hill (Petersberg) on the right (north). St. Augustine Church, marking the location of the Augustinian monastery, would be represented (if it is) by one of the steeples more toward the foreground on the northern half. The only building from the old university still in existence today, the Collegium Maius, is not far southwest of the monastery and would probably be near the fold of the woodcut.